Dietary needs for detoxification process in the human body
The human body is exposed to several xenobiotics or toxicants during its lifetime, including food components, food additives, alcohol, environmental toxins, microbes, medications, and normal body metabolite end products that can turn toxic if left unchecked.
Xenobiotics are toxins/toxicants. Xenobiotics are defined as chemical compounds found in but not generated by living organisms.
To make matters worse, we have reduced the nutritious value of our food and replaced it with artificial colorings, preservatives, additives, and flavourings. As a result, they give far less of the minerals required for detoxification. Our bodies may not always be able to withstand the level of current pollution and toxins. According to the CDC, approximately 80% of illnesses are caused by environmental or lifestyle factors (CDC, 2010).
Xenobiotics enter the body through the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. The human body has acquired sophisticated enzymatic detoxification mechanisms. During detoxification, the body converts (frequently hazardous) chemicals into less dangerous water-soluble (polar) molecules. It's also termed xenobiotic metabolism.
Toxin overload, malnutrition, and a damaged digestive system all contribute to a less effective detoxification process. In the absence of efficient elimination, extra toxins accumulate in adipose tissues, fatty tissues of the brain, neurological system, and endocrine glands, and in unborn foetuses.
A faulty detoxification system produces free radicals, which damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. Chronic fatigue/immune dysfunction syndrome, and neurological illnesses like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease have all been linked to inadequate detoxification.
The liver, kidneys, and intestines are the key organs involved in detoxification. The liver is the principal detoxification organ that works in two phases, converting fat-soluble poisons into water-soluble compounds that can be expelled in urine or bile. The liver deactivates xenobiotics, reduces their biological action, and speeds up their elimination.
Toxins in phase I metabolism are converted to active molecules and some substances to more hazardous metabolites.
This step initiates processes that expose or add a “functional group” to the hazardous molecule, forming a reactive site using oxygen. Ex. P450 (CYP450). This renders the deadly molecule “sticky” so that it can be mixed with something to make it more soluble.
Reactions in phase I include oxidation and reduction. CYP450 adds a hydroxyl group to the lip-soluble toxin, using NADH as a cofactor.
The toxins activated by phase I are sometimes far more reactive. Without rapid phase II detoxification, they can cause severe issues, including cancer. The pace at which phase I generates activated intermediates must be balanced by phase II's processing rate. Phase 1 and Phase 2 must be balanced.
Phase II conjugation usually follows Phase I activation. With water-soluble material, phase II couples or conjugates toxin/functional group triggered or induced in phase 1. Inactive, bigger, and more water-soluble poisonous molecules are less hazardous. Water-soluble conjugated xenobiotics are eliminated in urine, bile, and sweat. Conjugation is the next phase. These reactions necessitate cofactors, which are dietary nutrients. A few examples of common conjugation reactions are glutathione and glucuronidation.
These nutrients and foods help Phase I and Phase II perform properly.
A high-protein diet boosts oxidative drug metabolism. Low protein reduces cytochrome P-450 and reductase levels by 50-75 percent.
Probiotics (yeast and whole grains) help Phase I activation. Flavins: NADPH-cytochrome P-4 reductase and microsomal flavin-containing monooxygenase prosthetic groups.
Vitamin E appears to inhibit lipid peroxidation, which is thought to be crucial in foreign chemical toxicity.
Rich in vitamin C Antioxidants like peppers, cabbage, and tomatoes help in Phase I.
In addition to sulfur-containing meals (eggs), amino acids (cysteine, methionine, taurine) are required for phase II detoxification.
Glutathione is present in fruits and vegetables, brassicas, limonene, asparagus, avocado, walnuts, carrots, red beets, and watermelon.
The antioxidant quercetin is found in green and black tea as well as red wine and tomatoes. Quercetin protects the liver's DNA. It also induces phase II detoxifying enzymes.
Flavonoids can treat many liver problems. The quantity and position of free phenol and/or enol groups in the molecule determines the affnity for heavy metal ions.
Dialyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide have also been found to promote liver detoxification in rat models via GST.
Limonene, found in oranges and tangerines, and caraway and dill seeds, is a potent inducer of Phase I and II enzymes.
Cabbage, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts contain indole-3-carbinol, which stimulates both Phase I and II enzymes.
Turmeric Boost cellular resilience to oxidative damage and glutathione levels.
The drug blocks I while promoting II. This impact can help avoid certain cancers. Turmeric's curcumin inhibits carcinogens like benzopyrene (found in grilled meat)
Tea ingredients boost phase 1 and 2 enzyme activity. Green tea also inhibits chromosomal (DNA) damage caused by toxins in cigarette smoke.
Garlic seems to stimulate phase 1 and 2 enzymes. An increase in glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes may help the body detoxify.
The human body is constantly exposed to poisons. The human body has numerous enzymatic capabilities to detoxify these compounds, but excessive toxicity, poor nutrition, and low antioxidant stress can overload our systems.
Many more will be developed. These free radicals induce cellular damage and are the root cause of many human disorders. Detoxifying the body by cleansing individual organs like the liver, kidney, colon, etc., or by detoxifying the body as a whole, becomes vital. So it's vital to consume a balanced diet full of fresh, healthy foods.
There are meals and substances (alcohol, cigarette smoke) that promote the detoxification process and lessen the stress on the major detoxifying organs.